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1. SAE / EPC from A - Z INACON GmbH Kriegsstrasse 154 76133 Karlsruhe Germany www.inacon.com e-mail: inacon@inacon.de 2. Cover design by Stefan Kohler © 1999 - 2009…
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  • 1. SAE / EPC from A - Z INACON GmbH Kriegsstrasse 154 76133 Karlsruhe Germany www.inacon.com e-mail: inacon@inacon.de
  • 2. Cover design by Stefan Kohler © 1999 - 2009 INACON GmbH Kriegsstrasse 154 76133 Karlsruhe All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein. Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this publication, the publisher and authors assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. Neither is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein. For more information, contact INACON GmbH at www.inacon.com.
  • 3. Legend: All INACON publications use the same color codes to distinguish mandatory from optional or conditional parts in frame formats or optional from mandatory data blocks or signaling messages in scenarios. The different color codes are explained underneath: • Color Codes in Frame Formats: • Color Codes in Scenarios:
  • 4. Foreword of the Publisher: Dear Reader: Note that this book is primarily a training document because the primary business of INACON GmbH is the training and consulting market for mobile communications. As such, we are proud to providing high-end training courses to many clients worldwide, among them operators like Cingular, Mobilkom Austria, SWISSCOM, T-MOBILE or VSNL (India) and equipment suppliers like ALCATEL-LUCENT, ERICSSON and SONY-ERICSSON, MOTOROLA, NOKIA-SIEMENS and RIM. INACON GmbH is not one of the old-fashioned publishers. With respect to time-to-market, form-factor, homogeneous quality over all books and most importantly with respect to after-sales support, INACON GmbH is moving into a new direction. Therefore, INACON GmbH does not leave you alone with your issues and this book but we offer you to contact the author directly through e-mail (inacon@inacon.de), if you have any questions. All our authors are employees of INACON GmbH and all of them are proven experts in their area with usually many years of practical experience. The most important assets and features of the book in front of you are: • Extreme degree of detailed information about a certain technology. • Extensive and detailed index to allow instant access to information about virtually every parameter, timer and detail of this technology. • Incorporation of several practical exercises. • If applicable, incorporation of examples from our practical field experiences and real life recordings. • References to the respective standards and recommendations on virtually every page. Finally, we again like to congratulate you to the purchase of this book and we like to wish you success in using it during your daily work. Sincerely, Gunnar Heine / President & CEO of INACON GmbH
  • 5. Table of Content Table of Content Assessment & Top Level View................................................1 1.1 Why is an Architecture Evolution necessary?...........................2 1.1.1 Integration of E-UTRAN with its new Concepts...........................3 1.1.2 Integration of Non-3GPP RAT's is sub-optimum in Rel. 7 because ..............................................................................................4 1.1.3 Therefore, legacy operators of Non-3GPP-RAT's cannot adopt the existing 3GPP-CN-Architecture......................................................4 1.2 Important Requirements on SAE according to 3GPP...............6 1.2.1 Coexistence................................................................................7 1.2.2 Service Continuation...................................................................8 1.2.3 Better Performance.....................................................................8 1.2.4 Support of any Radio Access Technology (RAT)......................11 1.2.5 Circuit-switched fallback............................................................12 1.2.6 Management of Access Networks ............................................12 1.2.1 Comprehension Check & Exercise: Reasons of a System Architecture Evolution?...................................14 1.3 Seamless Mobility Options and their Characteristics..............16 1.3.1 Intra-RAT Mobility.....................................................................17 1.3.2 Inter-RAT Mobility (w/o Optimizations)......................................18 1.3.3 Inter-RAT Mobility (with Optimizations).....................................18 1.4 Architecture Overview............................................................20 1.4.1 Evolved Packet Core in Context................................................20 1.4.1.1 EPC vs. EPS.................................................................................20 1.4.1.2 Non-3GPP Access Networks (trusted / non-trusted).....................21 1.4.2 Zoom into the EPS....................................................................22 1.4.2.1 Functional Overview of Core Network Elements within the EPC. .23 1.4.3 Network Elements and their Functions within the EPC.............24 1.4.3.1 Mobility Management Entity (MME)...............................................24 1.4.3.1.1 Characteristics......................................................................24 1.4.3.1.2 Identification..........................................................................24 1.4.3.1.3 Interfaces & Protocols................................................................26 1.4.3.1.4 Tasks & Functions of the MME.............................................28 1.4.3.1.4.1 NAS-Signaling towards the UE..................................................28 1.4.3.1.4.2 S1-Signaling towards the eNodeB.............................................28 1.4.3.1.4.3 S-GW and P-GW Selection........................................................30 1.4.3.1.4.4 Other Selection Functions..........................................................31 1.4.3.1.4.4 Local Breakout...........................................................................32 1.4.3.1.4.5 IMS and Local Breakout.............................................................32 1.4.3.2 Serving Gateway (S-GW)..............................................................34 1.4.3.2.1 Characteristics......................................................................34 1.4.3.2.2 Identification..........................................................................34 1.4.3.2.3 Interfaces & Protocols...........................................................36 © INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.000 - i -
  • 6. SAE / EPC from A - Z 1.4.3.2.4 Tasks & Functions of the S-GW............................................38 1.4.3.2.4.1 Packet Routing / Relaying..........................................................38 1.4.3.2.4.2 Legal Interception.......................................................................38 1.4.3.2.4.3 QCI-based Packet Tagging........................................................38 1.4.3.2.4.4 Accounting..................................................................................38 1.4.3.3 PDN Gateway (P-GW or PDN-GW)..............................................40 1.4.3.3.1 Characteristics......................................................................40 1.4.3.3.2 Identification..........................................................................40 1.4.3.3.3 Interfaces & Protocols...........................................................42 1.4.3.3.4 Tasks & Functions of the P-GW............................................44 1.4.3.3.4.1 UE IP Address Allocation...........................................................44 1.4.3.3.4.2 QCI-based Packet Tagging........................................................44 1.4.3.3.4.3 Policy Enforcement....................................................................44 1.4.3.3.4.4 Legal Interception.......................................................................45 1.4.3.3.4.5 Home Agent Function.................................................................45 1.4.3.4 enhanced Packet Data Gateway (ePDG)......................................46 1.4.3.4.1 Characteristics......................................................................46 1.4.3.4.2 Identification..........................................................................46 1.4.3.4.3 Interfaces & Protocols...........................................................48 1.4.3.4.4 Tasks & Functions of the ePDG............................................50 1.4.3.4.4.1 ESP-Tunnel Mgmt towards UE's................................................50 1.4.3.4.4.2 QoS-specific Packet Tagging in UL-Direction............................50 1.4.3.4.4.3 Legal Interception.......................................................................50 1.4.3.4.4.4 MAG-Function for PMIPv6.........................................................50 1.4.3.5 Protocol Stack Architecture on the UE-Side .................................52 1.4.4 Comprehension Check & Exercise: Interworking within the EPS-Architecture...........................................54 Operations Overview..............................................................57 2.1 Network Access to the EPC in case of 3GPP-RAT's..............58 2.1.1 E-UTRAN..................................................................................58 2.1.1.1 Related Network Architecture........................................................58 2.1.1.2 Related Network Elements............................................................58 2.1.1.3 Signaling and Important State Changes (EMM, ECM, ESM)........60 2.1.2 GERAN / UTRAN......................................................................62 2.1.2.1 Related Network Architecture........................................................62 2.1.2.1.1 Selection of EPC vs. GGSN..................................................62 2.1.2.2 Signaling Procedures (GMM/PMM, SM).......................................64 2.1.1.4 Comprehension Check & Exercise: Relate E-UTRAN Procedures to GERAN / UTRAN Procedures...............66 2.2 Network Access in case of Non-3GPP RAT's.........................68 2.2.1 Network Discovery and Selection..............................................68 2.2.1.1 Problem Description......................................................................68 2.2.1.2 Interworking with the ANDSF........................................................70 2.2.1.3 Distinction Trusted vs. Non-Trusted Non-3GPP RAT's.................72 2.2.2 Trusted Non-3GPP RAT's.........................................................74 2.2.2.1 Related Network Architecture........................................................74 2.2.2.2 Signaling Procedures if EAP and PMIPv6 are used......................76 2.2.2.3 Signaling Procedures if MIPv4 is used..........................................78 2.2.3 Non-Trusted Non-3GPP RAT's.................................................80 2.2.3.1 Related Network Architecture........................................................80 2.2.3.2 Signaling Procedures if IKEv2 and PMIPv6 are used...................82 © INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.000 - ii -
  • 7. Table of Content 2.2.3.3 Signaling Procedures if IKEv2 and DSMIPv6 are used.................84 2.3 Voice Call Establishment........................................................86 2.3.1 IMS-based.................................................................................86 2.3.1.1 Related Network Architecture........................................................86 2.3.1.2 Signaling Procedure (SIP, SDP, DIAMETER)...............................88 2.3.2 Circuit-switched Fallback...........................................................90 2.3.2.1 Related Network Architecture........................................................90 2.3.2.2 Signaling Procedure for MOC........................................................92 2.3.2.3 Comprehension Check & Exercise: Voice Call Establishment...........................................................................94 2.4 Macro Mobility / Inter-RAT Roaming......................................96 2.4.1 Handover E-UTRAN to Trusted Non-3GPP RAT......................96 2.4.1.1 Related Network Architecture........................................................96 2.4.1.2 Signaling Procedure (NBM / PMIPv6 on S2a)...............................98 2.4.2 Handover E-UTRAN to Non-Trusted Non-3GPP RAT...................100 2.4.2.1 Related Network Architecture......................................................100 2.4.1.2 Signaling Procedure (NBM / PMIPv6 on S2b).............................102 2.4.1.3 Comprehension Check & Exercise: Inter-RAT Mobility....................................................................................104 Architectural Details of the EPS..........................................107 3.0 Comprehension Test & Repetition: Network Interfaces and Protocols..............................................108 3.1 Network Layout and Important Identifiers.............................114 3.1.1 Organization of the E-UTRAN.................................................114 3.1.1.1 Tracking Areas............................................................................115 3.1.1.1.1 TAI and TAI-list...................................................................116 3.1.1.2 E-UTRAN Pool Areas..................................................................116 3.1.2 MME Pool's and MMEI............................................................116 3.1.1.3 S-GW Service Areas...................................................................118 3.1.3 Identifiers of the UE.................................................................120 3.1.3.1 M-TMSI and S-TMSI....................................................................120 3.1.3.2 GUTI............................................................................................122 3.2 Bearer Concept & QoS-Architecture in SAE.........................124 3.2.1 SAE-Bearers, Classification and Policy Enforcement.............124 3.2.2 The QoS-Profile of the SAE-Bearer........................................126 3.2.2.1 GBR - Guaranteed Bit Rate.........................................................127 3.2.2.2 MBR - Maximum Bit Rate............................................................127 3.2.2.3 AMBR - Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate........................................127 3.2.2.4 ARP - Allocation Retention Priority..............................................127 3.2.2.5 QCI-Values and their Meanings..................................................128 3.2.2.6 Mapping between Rel. 8 QoS and earlier Releases...................128 3.2.3 QoS-Architecture with Release 8...................................................130 3.2.3.1 PCRF (Policy and Charging Rules Function)..............................130 3.2.3.2 BBERF (Bearer Binding and Event Reporting Function).............130 3.2.3.3 PCEF (Policy and Charging Enforcement Function)...................130 3.2.3.4 AF (Application Function)............................................................130 3.2.3.5 SPR (Subscription Profile Repository).........................................132 © INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.000 - iii -
  • 8. SAE / EPC from A - Z 3.2.3.6 OCS (Online Charging System)..................................................132 3.2.3.7 OFCS (Offline Charging System)................................................132 3.2.4 Bearer Establishment & Authorization - Differences Rel. 8 vs former Releases...............................................................................134 3.2.5 Relationship and Dependency among the different Bearers...136 Protocol Suite........................................................................139 4.1 The “Mainstream” Protocol Stacks.......................................140 4.1.1 Control Plane / E-UTRAN - EPC.............................................140 4.1.2 User Plane E-UTRAN – EPC (S5/S8 GTP-based)..................142 4.1.3 User Plane E-UTRAN – EPC (S5/S8 PMIPv6/GRE-based)....144 4.2 Generic Protocols within the EPC-Environment...................146 4.2.1 IPv4 and IPv6 and their Differences........................................146 4.2.1.1 Headers and IP-Address Ranges................................................146 4.2.1.2 How to obtain an IP-Address.......................................................148 4.2.1.2.1 IPv4 and DHCP..................................................................148 4.2.1.2.2 IPv6 and “Stateless Autoconfiguration”..............................150 4.2.1.2.3 Real-Life Recording: Stateless Autoconfiguration..............152 4.2.1.3 Fragmentation in IPv4 and IPv6..................................................154 4.2.2 QoS in IP-Networks.................................................................156 4.2.2.1 DiffServ........................................................................................156 4.2.2.1.1 Details of the AF(X,Y) PHB (Assured Forwarding).............158 4.2.2.1.2 Details of the EF PHB (Expedite Forwarding)....................160 4.2.3 SCTP......................................................................................162 4.2.3.1 Important SCTP-Functions..........................................................162 4.2.3.2 Example of an SCTP-Packet.......................................................164 4.2.4 DIAMETER..............................................................................166 4.3 Protocols related to E-UTRA Networks................................168 4.3.1 EPS Mobility Management (EMM)..........................................168 4.3.1.1 Important EMM-Procedures........................................................168 4.3.1.1.1 Common Procedures..........................................................169 4.3.1.1.2 Specific Procedures............................................................169 4.3.1.1.3 Connection Management Procedures................................169 4.3.1.2 State Machine..............................................................................170 4.3.2 EPS Session Management (ESM)..........................................172 4.3.2.1 Important ESM-Procedures.........................................................172 4.3.2.1.1 MME-initiated......................................................................173 4.3.2.1.2 UE-initiated.........................................................................173 4.3.2.2 State Machine..............................................................................174 4.3.3 Radio Resource Control RRC.................................................176 4.3.3.1 Overview......................................................................................176 4.3.3.1.1 Transmission of broadcast information...............................177 4.3.3.1.2 Establish and maintain services.........................................177 4.3.3.1.3 QoS control.........................................................................177 4.3.3.1.4 Transfer of dedicated control information...........................177 4.3.3.2 State Characteristics of RRC..........
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