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Journal of Theory and Practice in Education 2014, 10(4): ISSN:

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Eğitimde Kuram ve Uygulama Articles /Makaleler Journal of Theory and Practice in Education 2014, 10(4): ISSN: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE LEVEL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING AND THE COGNITIVE
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Eğitimde Kuram ve Uygulama Articles /Makaleler Journal of Theory and Practice in Education 2014, 10(4): ISSN: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE LEVEL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING AND THE COGNITIVE AND AFFECTIVE FEATURES OF STUDENTS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS SCHOOL (BEDEN EĞİTİMİ ve SPOR YÜKSEKOKULU ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN YABANCI DİL ÖĞRENME DÜZEYİ İLE BAZI BİLİŞSEL VE DUYUŞSAL ÖZELLİKLERİ ARASINDAKİ İLİŞKİ) A. Seda SARACALOĞLU 1 S. Rana VAROL 2 İlke EVİN GENCEL 3 ABSTRACT The importance of knowing a foreign language is a fact accepted by everyone. Learning a foreign language requires an affective and functional education. The research on the relationship between foreign language learning level and cognitive and affective features is significant to create effective learning environments. This study, in accordance with this purpose, utilized one group pretest-posttest design and examined the relationship between foreign language learning level of university students in the preparatory school of foreign languages and their cognitive and affective features. 39% (n=86) of the participants consisted of the students are female, and 61% (n=122) are male. To determine the affective features within the framework of the study, Attitude Scale towards Foreign Language (Saracaloğlu,1992) and Academic Self-Concept Scale (Arseven, 1979) were utilized while in order to determine the cognitive features, the average of high school grade points, foreign language success in high school, attendance to courses and final grade in preparatory school were taken into consideration. The study determined that there are highly positive relationships between success level of foreign language preparatory class, and attitude towards foreign language, academic self-concept, success average of foreign language, average of high school diploma grade and attendance to courses. Keywords: Students of Physical Education and Sports School, foreign language, affective features, cognitive features. ÖZET Yabancı dil bilmenin önemi, herkes tarafından kabul edilen bir gerçektir. Yabancı dilin öğrenilmesi, etkili ve işlevsel bir eğitimi gerektirmektedir. Yabancı dil öğrenme düzeyi ile bilişsel ve duyuşsal özellikler arasındaki ilişkilerin araştırılması, etkili öğrenme ortamlarının oluşturulması açısından önemlidir. Bu noktadan hareketle gerçekleştirilen eldeki araştırmada tek grup öntest-sontest deseni kullanılmış ve yabancı dil hazırlık okuluna devam eden üniversite öğrencilerinin yabancı dil öğrenme düzeyleri ile bilişsel ve duyuşsal özellikleri arasındaki ilişki incelenmiştir. Ege Üniversitesi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Yüksekokulu öğrencilerinden oluşan katılımcıların %39 u (n=86) u kız, %61 i (n=122) i erkek öğrencidir. Araştırmada duyuşsal özellikleri belirlemek üzere Yabancı Dile Yönelik Tutum Ölçeği (Saracaloğlu,1992) ve Akademik Benlik Tasarımı Ölçeği (Arseven, 1979) kullanılmıştır. Bilişsel özellikleri belirlemek için, ortaöğretim diploma notu ortalaması, lise yabancı dil başarısı, derse devam durumu ve hazırlık sınıfı başarı notlarından yararlanılmıştır. Araştırmada yabancı dil hazırlık sınıfı başarı düzeyi ile yabancı dil tutumu, akademik benlik tasarımı, yabancı dil başarı ortalaması, lise diploma notu ortalaması ve derse devam durumu arasında oldukça yüksek ve pozitif ilişkiler olduğu belirlenmiştir. Keywords: BESYO öğrencileri, yabancı dil öğrenme, duyuşsal özellikler, bilişsel özellikler. 1 Prof.Dr., Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, 2 Prof.Dr., Ege Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, 3 Doç.Dr., Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, Relationship between the level of foreign language learning and 971 the cognitive and affective features of students of physical education and sports school SUMMARY Introduction Knowing a foreign language has a critical importance for university students. However, a functional foreign language education is not able to be provided in the primary and secondary education institutions. Therefore, this education is provided in the level of university. In addition, foreign language education has become considerably important for the cultural and educational adaptation given the policy of Turkey for EU membership. In the education of foreign language, affective features as well as cognitive domain behaviors have a significant place. In the recent years, there has been an increasing tendency towards determining the role of affective factors. It is reflected that the research on the relationship between the foreign language learning levels of university students and their cognitive and affective features would contribute to the literature. Purpose There seems to be a limited number of studies on the factors which can affect foreign language learning of physical education and sports school (PES) students in Turkey. For this reason, it has been necessary to determine certain cognitive and affective features of students in preparatory class which might be associated with the level of foreign language learning. In accordance with this need, this study aims to examine the relationship between certain cognitive and affective features and the level of foreign language learning of the students in the PES. Method This study was conducted by using a one group pretest-posttest design. Though this design is considered as a quasi-experimental design due to the lack of control or comparison group, but it provides information on the changes in present situation without carrying out any empirical process or interfering the process. In this study, academic self-concept and attitudes towards foreign language considered to have a potential effect in achieving the aims of the study were discussed as affective variables. As cognitive behaviors, average of high school grade points and success of foreign language of the students in high school were examined. Furthermore, attendance of the students to foreign classes in the preparatory program were analyzed as a variable which might affect the success. The participants of the study consisted of all of the students in the PES of Ege University who are enrolled in Foreign Language Preparatory Program. A total of 208 students including 39% (n=86) female students and 61% (n=122) male students participated in the study. In order to determine the affective features, Attitude Scale towards Foreign Language (Saracaloğlu, 1992) and Academic Self-Concept Scale (Arseven, 1979) were utilized in the stud. In order to determine the cognitive features, the average of high school grade points, foreign language success in high school, attendance to courses and final grade in preparatory school were taken into consideration. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education / Eğitimde Kuram ve Uygulama Articles /Makaleler , 10(4): Saracaloğlu, Varol & Evin Gencel 972 The data of the study were analyzed firstly by means of Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk normality test and the data was found to show a normal distribution. Therefore, parametric tests were conducted in statistical analyses. In accordance with the aims of the study, related t-test, one-way analysis of variance as well as single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe for the repeated measurements of final grades in first-second terms and in end of term, and LSD test were carried out. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated and multiple regression analysis was conducted. In the calculation of effect sizes, Cohen s d formula for t-tests and eta square formula for variance analysis were carried out. Discussion and Conclusion The scores of attitudes towards foreign language in the beginning and end of term and of academic self-concept of the participants, and attendance in the first and second term of the participants show differences. The values of students examined in the study showed a decrease in second term. This situation may result from the increase in trainings and matches of the students who are athletes. The negative effects of this intensive life style on foreign language learning process are concluded to be eliminated by means of functional education programs. In this respect, the necessity to evaluate the foreign language programs of preparatory schools emerged. Foreign language programs should be thoroughly evaluated and improved by means of program development studies. When the averages of attendance to first and second terms of the students were analyzed, the rate of attendance to second-term courses was found to significantly decrease. This situation is concluded to result from the trainings and matches increasing especially in second term. Ensuring the attendance of the students to courses is principally important in foreign language learning. Therefore, this situation should be taken into consideration in the planning of sport activities of the students in foreign language preparatory school during this process. The averages of the foreign language success of the participants were observed to increase relatively in the second term and in the end of term. That the averages of the final grades of the students were only one point higher than the averages in the first term is concluded to the existence of inaccurate aspects of education program. Therefore, the program should be evaluated in detail in terms of aim and content as well as in terms of education level and implementation, and the opinions of faculty members and students on the process of program should be taken into consideration. When the success levels of foreign language of students were analyzed in terms of their attitude scores towards foreign language and their scores of academic self-concept, the students with high scores of above-mentioned affective features were found to have also significantly high success scores. It is obvious that instilling positive affective features to students is an effective way in order to increase their levels of foreign language learning. For this reason, it is critical that the process of foreign language learning should be attractive and enjoyable for students. Therefore, various activities, presentations prepared in an appropriate language level for students, and contests can be carried out. Student- Relationship between the level of foreign language learning and 973 the cognitive and affective features of students of physical education and sports school centered contemporary teaching approaches and various drama techniques can make foreign language learning attractive. Additionally, adequate consciousness-raising for students about the future contributions of foreign language learning is concluded to enable them to be more eager. In this respect, providing guidance service is suggested. When the averages of high-school foreign language scores and foreign language success of preparatory school of the participants were analyzed, the students with foreign language scores of good and very good in secondary school level were observed to be more successful in preparatory school. This situation indicates the importance of foreign language education in secondary schools. In this respect, the functionality of foreign language education programs in secondary schools should be examined, and the process underlying foreign language learning in a sense should be evaluated and improved. The study determined relatively high and positive relationships between the success level of foreign language preparatory class, and attitude towards foreign language and academic self-concept. The affective features in the study can explain.82 of the variance in the success. However, academic self-concept accounts for 44% of the variance in the success when attitude towards foreign language is fixed, which put forwards that the most important factor for success level of foreign language preparatory school is academic self-concept. In this respect, the importance of the adoption of positive academic self-concept by students is obviously indicated. In developing positive academic self-concept, students should be introduced to the conditions in which they can be successful, and faculty members should be enabled to develop positive expectations. The necessity of inservice training for faculty members should be determined and appropriate measures should be taken according to the results of needs analysis. The success level was determined to rise as academic self-concept increases. In this case, it can be stated that there is an interaction between success level and academic self-concept, and this interaction affects learning level. The success levels of participants with moderately good or good averages of high-school grade point do not show any statistical difference. In addition, the success level of foreign language rises as the average of high school grade point increases. In this case, it can be stated that students having success in high school are also successful in preparatory class. However, this situation is not statistically significant and the averages of their diploma scores are at moderate level. Many studies put forward that there are positive correlations between time devoted to learning and success/ competency. In this study, quite high and positive correlations between.88 and.91 were found between attendance to classes and foreign language learning level. In this respect, it can be stated that there is a consistency among above-mentioned studies. As a general result, the study with the aim of contributing to the literature found a positive attitude towards foreign language and academic self-concept of participants and a moderate level foreign language success. The most important variables affecting foreign language success were also found to be attendance to Journal of Theory and Practice in Education / Eğitimde Kuram ve Uygulama Articles /Makaleler , 10(4): Saracaloğlu, Varol & Evin Gencel 974 class, foreign language success in high school, academic self-concept and attitude towards foreign language. GİRİŞ Günümüzde yabancı dilin önemi yadsınamaz boyutlara ulaşmıştır. Buna göre, üniversiteli gençlerin yabancı dil bilmesi kritik bir öneme sahiptir. Ne var ki, ilk ve ortaöğretim kurumlarında işlevsel bir yabancı dil eğitimi verilemediği için, söz konusu eğitim üniversite düzeyine taşınmıştır. Çeşitli kaynaklarda da Türkiye de ortaöğretim düzeyinde yabancı dil eğitimin yeterli düzeyde verilemediği ifade edilmektedir (Aydın, 2003; Erdem & Morgil, 1992; Demirel, 1991; 1983, Saracaloğlu & Varol, 2007). Özellikle Anadolu Liselerinin hazırlık sınıflarında verilen eğitimin hedeflerine ulaşmadığı, yeterli olmadığı, öğretmenlerin de yeterlilik düzeylerinin geliştirilmesi gerektiği vurgulanmaktadır (Çelebi, 2006; Erdem & Morgil, 1992, Tosun, 2006). Yapılan bir araştırmada (Çalış, 1995); üniversite birinci sınıf öğrencileri, yabancı dil öğretiminin ortaöğretimde çözülmesi gerektiğini belirtmekte ve yabancı dil hazırlık sınıfı uygulamasını önermektedirler. Aynı şekilde, Ortaş (2003) ve Erkaya (1997) da yabancı dil sorununun öncelikle üniversite öncesinde çözümlenmesini, bu mümkün olamıyorsa üniversitelerde açılan hazırlık sınıflarında öğretilmesi gerektiğini vurgulamaktadır. Nitekim Ortadoğu Teknik Üniversitesi, Boğaziçi Üniversitesi gibi bazı devlet üniversiteleri yabancı dille öğretim yapmakta, bazı üniversiteler de hazırlık sınıfları/programları açarak öğrencilere yabancı dil öğretmeye çalışmaktadır. Günümüzde yabancı dille öğretim yapmakta olan okul sayısının 493 olmasının (htpp://www.meb.gov.tr) yanında, Vakıf Üniversitelerinin hemen hemen tamamında da yabancı dille öğretim yapılması, bu kanıyı destekler mahiyettedir. Bunun yanı sıra Türkiye nin AB üyeliğine yönelik politikası göz önüne alındığında, kültürel ve eğitimsel uyum adına yabancı dil öğretimi daha büyük bir önem kazanmış, çocuk ve gençler en az bir yabancı dil, özellikle de İngilizce öğrenmeye özendirilmiştir. Nitekim dünyada en çok konuşulan ikinci dil İngilizce dir ve bu rakam 514 milyon kişidir (http://www.infoplease.com). Günümüzde Almanca ve Fransızca öğrenen öğrenci sayısı azalmış ve dilin küreselleşmesi sürecinde İngilizce dünya dili haline gelmiştir (Dörnyei & Csizer, 2002; Graham, 2004; Lambert, 2001). Bu nedenle araştırmalar, ikinci ya da yabancı dil öğretimi ve bunu etkileyen faktörler üzerinde yoğunlaşmıştır. Yabancı dil öğretiminde, bilişsel alan davranışlarının yanı sıra duyuşsal özellikler de büyük önem taşımaktadır. Lisedeki genel başarı düzeyi, ilgili alandaki önceki başarılar ve derse devam/katılım, öğrencinin bilişsel hazırbulunuşluk düzeyini etkileyerek öğrenme düzeyini yükseltmektedir. Özellikle yabancı dil öğrenmede sınıf ortamı kritik bir önem taşımaktadır. Bu süreçte; program, kullanılan öğretim yöntem ve teknikleri, öğrenme stratejileri, materyal, yabancı dile zaman ayrılması, ailenin ve yabancı dil öğretmeninin tutumu, motivasyon gibi özellikler öğrencinin yabancı dile ilişkin tutumunu etkilemektedir. Bunun yanı sıra, Relationship between the level of foreign language learning and 975 the cognitive and affective features of students of physical education and sports school öğrencinin sınıf arkadaşları ve öğretmeni ile olan ilişkisi yabancı dil yeterliğinde/başarısında temel etkiye sahiptir (Chambers, 1999; Chan, 1996; Çetin, 1990; Ellis, 2002; Gardner, 1985; 1988; Gardner & MacIntyre, 1993; Graham, 2004; Oxford, 1994; 1990; 1989; Öner & Gediklioğlu, 2007; Sankaran, Sankaran & Bui, 2000; Yashima, 2002). Son yıllarda, ikinci ya da yabancı dil öğrenmede duyuşsal faktörlerin rolünü belirlemek için gittikçe artan bir eğilim bulunmaktadır. Duyuşsal alan, benlik saygısı, motivasyon, kaygı, empati, öz-yeterlik, tutum vb. gibi bazı kişisel özellikleri kapsamakta ve bu özellikler dil öğrenmedeki temel faktörler olarak görülmektedir (Andres, 2002; Brown, 1994; MacIntyre & Gardner, 1991; Moskowitz, 1999; Oxford, 1994; 1990; 1989; Rodriguez & Abreu,2003; Rossiter, 2003). Özellikle öğrenci tutumları, yabancı dil öğrenmedeki başarı düzeyini etkilemekte ve başarı da öğrenciyi etkilemektedir. Başka bir anlatımla, öğrencinin yabancı dile ilişkin olumlu tutumu, başarı düzeyini yükseltmektedir. Aksine, öğrencinin olumsuz tutumu da başarısızlığı pekiştirebilmektedir (Ellis, 2002; Hussein, 2010; Mitchell & Myles, 1998). Yine çeşitli araştırmalarda; önceki başarılı öğrenme deneyimlerinin, öğrencilerin sonraki öğrenme düzeylerindeki başarısını ve tutumlarını olumlu etkilediği vurgulanmaktadır. Öğrencinin başarı ya da başarısızlık beklentisinin yanı sıra, öz-yeterlik düzeyinin de onun yabancı dil öğrenme motivasyonu üzerinde önemli bir etkiye sahip bulunduğu ve bunun dil başarısı ile ilişkili olduğu ifade edilmektedir (Ehrman, 1996; Karahan, 2007; Oxford & Shearin, 1994; Tsuda 2003, Tremblay & Zimmerman, 1995). Yabancı dile yönelik tutumlar ile ilgili çalışmalar; öğrenci tutumlarının genellikle olumlu bulunduğunu ve tutumun başarı/yeterlik ile ilişkili olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır. (Baştürkmen, 1990; Buschenhofen, 1998; Donitsa-Schmidt, Inbar & Shahamy, 2004; Graham, 2004; İnal, Evin & Saracaloğlu, 2005; Saracaloğlu, 2000; 1996; 1995; 1994; 1992; Yashima, 2002). Duyuşsal özelliklerden olan akademik benlik tasarımı (ABT), öğrenme süreçlerini dolayısıyla başarıyı etkileyen bir diğer önemli etmendir. ABT, bir öğrencinin belli bir akademik uğraşı karşısında, diğer öğrencilere göre kendisinin ne kadar yetenekli olduğu hakkında geliştirdiği kanısı, öğrencinin öğrenme deneyimlerine bağlı olarak herhangi öğrenmeyi gerçekleştirip gerçekleştiremeyeceğine ilişkin kendini algılayış tarzı olarak tanımlanmaktadır (Arseven, 1979; Senemoğlu, 2013). Bloom (1979) a göre, öğrencinin önceki başarısı, akademik benlik tasarımını etkilemekte ve ABT de sonraki öğrenme başarısını etkilemektedir. Benzer giriş davranışlarıyla öğrenme-öğretme sürecine giren öğrencilerden başarısızlığa uğrayanların akademik benlik tasarımlarının olumsuzlaştığı ve bireysel öğrenme düzeylerinin düştüğü, başarı ile karşılaşan öğrencilerin ise akademik benlik tasarımlarının ve öğrenme düzeylerinin yükseldiği görülmektedir (Bloom,
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